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In Russia, this approach had very quickly led to the oil sector falling into the hands of a few super-rich oligarchs. Bush approved the plan drawn up by the Pentagon and State Department in January 2003. The much-decorated retired lieutenant general The best platform for trading in Russia 2021 Gardner, was appointed director of the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, the military administration set up to govern post-Saddam Iraq.

Out of his depth, he stuck to short-term measures and avoided choosing between the options put forward by his technical advisers. The international oil companies were not idle.

Lee Raymond, CEO of America's biggest oil company ExxonMobil, was an old friend of Dick Cheney. But where the politicians were daring, he was cautious. The project was a tempting opportunity to replenish the company's Sberbank shares rate today, which had been stagnant for several years, but Raymond had doubts: would Bush really be able to assure conditions that would allow the company to operate safely in Iraq.

Nobody at ExxonMobil was willing to die the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 oil. In the UK, BP was anxious to secure its own share of the spoils. In February 2003 atp is that fears were removed: France's president Jacques Chirac the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 a resolution put forward by the US, and the third Iraq war began without UN backing.

There was no longer any question of respecting the agreements Saddam had signed with Total and other companies (which had never been put into practice because of sanctions). To reassure the British and US oil giants, the US government appointed to the management team Gary Vogler of ExxonMobil and Philip J Carrol of Shell.

They were replaced in October 2003 by Rob McKee of ConocoPhilips and Terry Adams of BP. The idea was to counter the dominance of the Pentagon, and the influential neocon approach (which faced opposition from within the administration). The neocon ideologues, still on the scene, had bizarre ideas: they wanted to build a pipeline to transport Iraq's crude oil to Israel, dismantle OPEC (Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) my house 24 even use "liberated" Iraq as a guinea pig for a new oil business model to be the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 to all of the Middle East.

The engineers and businessmen, whose priorities were profits and results, were more down-to-earth. In any event, the invasion usd rub a devastating impact on Iraq's oil production, less because of the bombing by the US air force than because of the widespread looting of government agencies, schools, universities, archives, libraries, banks, hospitals, museums and state-owned enterprises.

Drilling rigs were dismantled for the copper parts they were believed to contain. The looting continued from March to May 2003.

Saddam's supporters were prevented from blowing how much does a ready-made franchise cost the oil wells by the speed of the the best platform for trading in Russia 2021, but the saboteurs set to work in June 2003. The only buildings protected were the gigantic oil ministry, where 15,000 civil servants managed 22 subsidiaries of the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 Iraq National Oil Company.

The State Oil Marketing Organisation and the infrastructure were abandoned. The occupiers regarded the oil under the ground as Iraq's one real asset.

They were not interested in installations or personnel. The oil ministry was only saved at the last minute because it housed geological and seismic data on Iraq's 80 known deposits, estimated to contain 115bn barrels of crude oil. The rest could always be replaced with more modern US-made equipment and the knowhow of the international oil companies, made indispensible by the sabotage. Thamir Abbas Ghadban, director-general of planning at the oil ministry, turned up at the office three days after the invasion was over, and, in the absence of a minister for oil (since Iraq had no government), was appointed second in command under Micheal Mobbs, a neocon who enjoyed the confidence of the Pentagon.

Paul Bremer, the US proconsul who headed Iraq's provisional government from May 2003 to June 2004, presided over the worst 12 months in the oil sector in 70 years. The senior management of the national oil company also suffered.

Until 1952 almost all senior managers of the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) were foreigners, who occupied villas in gated and guarded compounds while the local workforce lived in shantytowns. In 1952 tension between Iraq and Muhammad Mossadegh's Iran led the IPC to review its relations with Baghdad, and a clause of the new treaty concerned the training of Iraqi managers.

The new Iraq National Oil Company gained control of the oilfields and production reached unprecedented levels. After the invasion, the US purged Ba'athist elements from INOC's management. Simply belonging to the Ba'ath, Iraq's single political party, which had the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 in power since 1968, the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 grounds for dismissal, compulsory retirement or worse.

Seventeen of INOC's 24 directors were forced out, along with trading bitcoin hundred engineers, who had kept production high through wars and foreign sanctions. The founding fathers of INOC were ousted by the Deba'athification Commission, led by former the best platform for trading in Russia 2021 including Iraq's prime minister Nuri al-Maliki, who replaced them with his own supporters, as incompetent as they were partisan.

Rob McKee, who succeeded Philip J Carrol as average down adviser to the US the best platform for trading in Russia 2021, observed in autumn 2003: "The people themselves are patently unqualified and are apparently being placed in the ministry for religious, political or personal reasons.

This purge opened the door to advisers, mostly from the US, who bombarded the oil ministry with notes, circulars and reports directly inspired by the practices of the international oil industry, without much concern for their applicability to Iraq.

The drafting of Iraq's new constitution and an oil law provided an opportunity to change the rules. Washington had us oil reserves in advance to do away with the centralised state, partly because of its crimes against the Kurds under Saddam and partly because centralisation favours totalitarianism.

The new federal, or even confederal, regime was decentralised to the point of being de-structured. A two-thirds majority in one of the three provinces allows opposition to veto central government decisions. Only Kurdistan had the means and the motivation to do so. Where oil was concerned, power was effectively divided between Baghdad and Irbil, seat of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), which imposed its own interpretation of the constitution: deposits already being exploited would remain under federal government control, but new licenses would be granted by the provincial governments.

A Amazon stock price dispute arose between the two capitals, partly because the KRG granted licenses to foreign oil companies under far more favourable conditions than those offered by Baghdad.

The quarrel related to the production sharing agreements. The usual practice is for foreign companies that provide financial backing to get a share of the oil produced, which can be very significant in the first few years.

This was the formula US politicians and oil companies wanted to impose. They were unable to do so.



20.08.2019 in 13:49 Муза:
Конечно. Так бывает.

21.08.2019 in 13:02 Эмиль:
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22.08.2019 in 16:35 Людмила:
Замечательно, ценная информация

23.08.2019 in 00:00 Амос:
Блестящий текст. Сразу чувствуется, что автором проделана большая работа.

26.08.2019 in 16:08 fectmugo:
Огромное человеческое спасбо!